Translation procedure for quality assurance:
Quality assurance of the translation process into other languages is very
important in order to guarantee comparable question wording. It is strongly
recommended to follow the translation procedure described below when making
new translations of NOSACQ. When translating from the English master
version of the questionnaire it is important that it is translated to the
language and terminology understood by the target population. The
questionnaire must use terms (for example ‘safety representative’) used and
understood by the population in question (layman’s terms). An important
point is not to translate word for word but to emphasise similar
understanding, “meaning by meaning”. In translations and adaptations to
layman language, the meaning of the questions should be kept as
close to the original statement as possible, even if the wording must be
The translation process must include at least one – preferably two -
forward translations (e.g. English to French) and one backward translation
(e.g. the translated French to English) - carried out by different persons.
In the forward translation one, preferably two, native speakers of the
target language translate the questionnaire, and a consensus version is
derived. In the backward translation at least one other person
(trained or laymen) familiar with both languages translates the new
language version back into English. This is then followed by a consensus
meeting whereby the English master version is compared with the backward
translated English version. Subsequent revisions are carried out with the
new language version with attention being given to clarity, readability,
fluency and use of common language/terms.
Pre-testing new language
Always pre-test the questionnaire, e.g. on colleagues, and do a final test
on representatives of the target population. Ask for comments on anything
and consider every comment in subsequent revisions prior to pilot testing.
It is important to preserve the exact meaning of questions that are taken
from NOSACQ-50 in order to be able to compare the results with other
studies using NOSACQ-50, and to be able to be included and allow for
benchmarking with studies in the international database.
Pilot testing new language
Pilot-testing of each new language version of NOSACQ-50 is required to
ensure that the new language version performs similarly to the other
versions. This requires advanced statistical techniques, such as
confirmatory factor analysis, which should be done in cooperation with
the NOSACQ-50 development team ( NOSACQ@NRCWE.DK ). At least 150 completed
questionnaires are required for pilot testing. The participants may be
from the same or different companies/branches.